The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, but it never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew his father, and he has since ruled as sultan. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries. Inspired by the popular uprisings that swept the Middle East and North Africa beginning in January 2011, some Omanis began staging marches, demonstrations, and sit-ins calling mostly for more jobs and economic benefits and an end to corruption. In response to those protester demands, QABOOS in 2011 pledged to implement economic and political reforms, such as granting legislative and regulatory powers to the Majlis al-Shura and introducing unemployment benefits. Additionally, in August 2012, the Sultan announced a royal directive mandating the speedy implementation of a national job creation plan for thousands of public and private sector jobs. As part of the government's efforts to decentralize authority and allow greater citizen participation in local governance, Oman successfully conducted its first municipal council elections in December 2012. Announced by the Sultan in 2011, the municipal councils will have the power to advise the Royal Court on the needs of local districts across Oman's 11 governorates.

Other Information

Natural Resources

petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land Use

arable land: 0.1%
permanent crops: 0.12%
other: 99.77% (2011)


country comparison to the world: 136
note: immigrants make up just over 30% of the total population, according to UN data (2013) (July 2014 est.)

Ethnic Groups

Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African


Muslim (official; majority are Ibadhi, lesser numbers of Sunni and Shia)) 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish <.1, other 1%, unaffiliated 0.2%
note: approximately 75% of Omani citizens, who compose almost 70% of the country's tot


Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.9%
male: 90.2%
female: 81.8% (2010 est.)



Government Type



1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National Holiday

Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)