of the oldest demands for a separate state was fulfilled
when the Parliament passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill
on August 2, 2000 to create the state of Jharkhand. The
genesis of the demand can be traced to early 1900s when
Jaipal Singh, the Oxford educated hockey Captain of the
1928 Olympics mooted the idea of a separate state consisting
of the Southern districts of Bihar. After that there had
been no looking back. Jharkhand Movement had begun.
per 1000 males (2001)
of urban population (2001)
The state comprises
of eighteen districts of the erstwhile Bihar- Ranchi, Gumla,
Lohardanga, East Singbhum, West Singbhum, Hazaribagh, Giridih,
Kodarma, Chatra, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Palamau, Garhwa, Dumka,
Deoghar, Godda, Pakure and Sahebgunj. With an area of 79,714
sq km, the new state will be bordered by Bihar, MP, Orissa
and West Bengal to its north, west, south and east respectively.
35% of the population of former Bihar is in the Jharkhand
Jharkhand is one the
most industrialized regions of the country today. The region
accounts for 35.5% of the country's known coal reserves,
90% of its cooking coal deposits, 40% of its copper, 22%
of its iron ore, 90% of its mica and huge deposits of bauxite,
quartz and ceramics. It is home to the largest steel plant
in Bokaro, apart from Jamshedpur being practically the city
of TISCO and TELCO.
With its huge reserves
of forests and natural resources, things can look up in
this predominantly poverty ridden region. With the total
revenue of Rs 3,775 crores, Jharkhand may be able to alleviate
its poverty. Its revenues can now be utilized for its own
development and no longer be diverted to the state's coffers
of Bihar as has been the case. Naturally the biggest loser
is Bihar. Bihar will suddenly find its lifeline of revenues
Just consider this,
about 63% of Bihar’s total revenue comes from this region.
With the creation of Jharkhand, the truncated Bihar will
suffer a revenue loss Rs 1,500 crores annually. As the major
contributor to the State's Exchequer, mines and minerals,
and a large chunk of the commercial taxes will go to the
newly formed State.
With everything in
its favor, Jharkhand can well look forward to a bright future.
It is poised to become the Industrial powerhouse of the
country, that is, if its leaders set the wheel of development
Ranchi, the Capital
of the State, is known for the Tagore Hill, Lamle Da, and
the Kagammatj Temple, which is believed to have been built
during the 17th centry. On Ranchi - Hazaribagh road is the
War Cemetery. Ranchi offers an ideal opportunity to those
interested in anthropology. The Tribal Research Institute
and museum is well worth a visit for those seeking to know
more about the tribal life of Jharkhand.
Mc Cluskieganj is a small village near Ranchi. It evokes
nostalgia and one gradually discovers that the place was
once popular with the Anglo-Indian community. Filmmakers
have taken note not only of the spectacular natural beauty,
clean air and extravagant greenery, but also of the village
itself, a heady mix of the untamed and the sophisticated.
Some of the houses here have retained their English names
together with the epitaph of 'haunted house'. During the
1950s, there were no less than 100 Anglo Indian families
with their typical cottages, clubs and shops.
The world's first tiger-census was done in the Palamau forests
in 1932. There were around 54 tigers here in 1991. The park
is spread over a core area of 250 square kilometers and
is also known as the Betla National Park. The National Park
is laden with severe biotic pressure from 107 villages in
the buffer and three in the core region. Livestock dependence
is also high. Peafowl, red jungle fowl, and partridges are
the common birds here.
The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is set in a similar ecosystem.
Hence, most of the denizens of the wild found in Palamau
can also be seen here. Sighting of wild boar, sambar, nilgai,
cheetal, and kakar is assured especially near the waterholes
at dusk. Tigers being less in number - 14 according to the
1991 census - are difficult to sight. The sanctuary is situated
at an average altitude of 1800 feet and stretches over 184
square kilometers of undulating country and steep hills
with dense tropical forests and grass meadows. The National
Highway passing through the sanctuary is a cause of disturbance.
It is worth driving on a couple of hours through Betla to
Netarhat, which is a pretty place at an elevation of 1250
meters. It is renowned for spectacular sunrises and sunsets
plus the scenery. The Netarhat school here is very famous
and has produced innumerable bright students.
Rajrappa, 90 km from Hazaribagh town is famous for "Ma Chhina
Mastika" temple where River Bhera joins the Damodar from
a height of 20 ft. The little waterfall offers boating facilities,
which introduces some very spectacular rock formations in
Graced with a pleasant climate and picturesque places, Hazaribagh
plateau has on its eastern margin, Parasnath - the highest
hill in Jharkhand, rising to a height of 4,480 ft. The loftiness
here is of another order. According to Jain tradition, no
less than 20 out of 24 tirthankaras or saints (including
Parsvanatha) are believed to have attained salvation in
the Sammeta shikhar or the Parasnath hills. The hill seems
to have been an abode of Jains. Parsvanatha, the 23rd tirthankar
was very popular among the tribal population of Chotanagpur.
Both the Swetambara and Digambara Jains have many beautiful
temples here on the hills.
Deoghar or Baidyanathdham
is the most important Hindu pilgrimage site for the people
of Jharkhand as well as Bihar. Lakhs of pilgrims visit this
place on foot traveling for around 100 km during the month
of Shravan to pay their reverence to Lord Shiva.
Hotels of Jharkhand
The State has hotels
of star and non star category catering to the needs of the
tourists visiting Jharkhand. Besides it has resorts, restaurants
and cafés which cater to the needs of all segment of travelers.