Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine of Kazakhstan's growth, although the country is aggressively pursuing diversification strategies. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbors to export its products, especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports, pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways continue to need attention. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic because of regional dependencies, but the country is moving forward with plans to improve reliability of electricity and gas supply to its population. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan's economy, it has rebounded well, helped by prudent government measures. Rising commodity prices have helped the recovery. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called "Dutch disease." In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships.


$243.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$231.9 billion (2012 est.)
$220.6 billion (2011 est.)

GDP- Real Growth Rate

5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
5.1% (2012 est.)
7.5% (2011 est.)

GDP - Per Capita

$14,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
$13,700 (2012 est.)
$13,200 (2011 est.)

GDP - Composition By Sector

agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 37.9%
services: 56.9% (2011 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line

5.3% (2011 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices)

5.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
5.1% (2012 est.)

Labor Force

9.022 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Labor Force - By Occupation

agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 11.9%
services: 62.3% (2012)

Unemployment Rate

5.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51 5.3% (2012 est.)


oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial Production Growth

2.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122