French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.

Other Information

Natural Resources

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land Use

arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 3.7%
other: 52.1% (2011)


country comparison to the world: 100
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower

Ethnic Groups

African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%


Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%


French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.4%
male: 74.1%
female: 48% (2011 est.)



Government Type

republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule


27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National Holiday

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)